Markets and Globalization

Verkäuferinnen auf dem Markt in La Paz, Bolivien

Detailed studies of local crop markets are of great importance as even local authorities are beginning to encourage wider consumption of locally harvested foods and complementary alternative medicines, such as during the Covid-19 pandemic. Our work examines the composition of the total market flora of metropolitan areas in Georgia, Bolivia, India, Iran, Pakistan, Peru and Colombia and possible changes over the past decades to promote sustainable and safe use of plants.



Motahhari, K; Pirani, A; Moazzen, H; Joharchi, MR; Bussmann, RW (2022). Economic high-demand medicinal plants of herbal markets in Mashhad, Iran. Economic Botany doi: 10.1007/s12231-022-09557-4


Ali Shah, A; Badshah, L; Muhammad, M; Khan, S; Abbas, M; Jan, A; Khan, N; Bussmann, RW (2021). Quantitative study on the trade and ecological aspect of spice plants in the markets of District Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Ethnobotany Research and Applications 22:32. doi: 10.32859/era.22.32.1-21


Bussmann, R.W., Paniagua-Zambrana, N.Y., Romero, C., Hart, R.E. (2018). Astonishing diversity - the medicinal plant markets of Bogotá, Colombia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 14(1):43. doi: 10.1186/s13002-018-0241-8


Bussmann, R.W., Paniagua Zambrana, N.Y., Romero, C., Hart, R.E.(2018). No consensus in “traditional” medicine - Medicinal plants and their uses in the markets of Bogotá (Colombia):La Paz/El Alto (Bolivia) and Trujillo/Chiclayo (Perú). Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 17(3):494-498.


Bussmann, R.W., Paniagua Zambrana, N.Y., Sikharulidze, S., Kikvidze, Z., Kikodze, D., Tchelidze, D., Batsatsashvili, K., Hart, R.E. (2017). Plants in the spa – the medicinal plant market of Borjomi, Sakartvelo (Republic of Georgia):Caucasus. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 16(1):25-34.


Bussmann, R.W., Paniagua Zambrana, N.Y., Moya Huanca, L.A., Hart, R.E. (2016). Changing markets – medicinal plants in the markets of La Paz and El Alto, Bolivia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 193:76-95. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.07.074


Bussmann, R.W., Paniagua-Zambrana, N.Y., Moya Huanca, A.L. (2015). Dangerous confusion – “Cola de Caballo” – Horsetail, in the markets of La Paz, Bolivia. Economic Botany 69, 89-93.


Bussmann, R.W., Paniagua-Zambrana, N.Y., Chamorro, M., Molina Moreira, N., Cuadros Negri, M.L., Olivera, J. (2013). Peril in the market – classification and dosage of species used as anti-diabetics in Lima, Peru. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 9:37.


Bussmann, R.W., Paniagua-Zambrana, N.Y. (2012). "Facing global markets - Usage changes in Amazonian Palms: the example of Euterpe precatoria and E. oleracea". Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae. 81(4):257-261.

Selected Publications

Shah A, Badshah L, Bussmann RW, Muhammad M, Abdullah, Ullah F, Khan S, Khan N. (2022):
Quantitative study of the food flavoring spice mixtures used in the traditional markets of District Bannu Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. Ethnobotany Research and Applications 23:26: doi: 10.32859/era.26.20.1-33